Conduct an investigation to determine solubility rules, and predict and analyse the composition of substances when two ionic solutions are mixed

The following are the solubility rules for common ionic solids. If there two rules appear to contradict each other, the preceding rule takes precedence.

  1. Salts containing Group I elements (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) are soluble . There are few exceptions to this rule. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble.
  2. Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3) are generally soluble.
  3. Salts containing Cl , Br , or I are generally soluble. Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+. Thus, AgCl, PbBr2, and Hg2Cl2 are insoluble.
  4. Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3and Ag(C2H3O2) are common soluble salts of silver; virtually all others are insoluble.
  5. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include CaSO4, BaSO4, PbSO4, Ag2SO4and SrSO4 .
  6. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, Co(OH)2 are not soluble.
  7. Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble, including CdS, FeS, ZnS, and Ag2 Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also insoluble.
  8. Carbonates are frequently insoluble. Group II carbonates (CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO​3) are insoluble, as are FeCO3and PbCO3.
  9. Chromates are frequently insoluble. Examples include PbCrO4and BaCrO4.
  10. Phosphates such as Ca3(PO4)and Ag3PO4are frequently insoluble.
  11. Fluorides such as BaF2, MgF2, and PbF2are frequently insoluble.

These rules are based on the following definitions of the terms soluble, insoluble, and slightly soluble.

–potassium chloride and silver nitrate

The reaction between potassium chloride and silver nitrate would result in the formation of silver chloride which is a white precipitate.

– potassium iodide and lead nitrate

When you combine lead nitrate and potassium iodide solutions, a double-replacement reaction happens. The two compounds react, and the positive ions and negative ions of the two reactants switch places, creating two new compounds Lead particles and iodide particles combine and create two new compounds, a yellow solid called lead iodide and a white solid called potassium nitrate.

– sodium sulfate and barium nitrate

Barium nitrate and sodium sulphate react together to form one soluble salt, sodium nitrate, and an insoluble salt, barium sulphate. Barium sulphate is one of the most insoluble compounds known.