Industrial Chemistry > 5. Saponification is an important organic industrial process > Performing Saponification In School >
Describe the conditions under which saponification can be performed in the school laboratory and compare these with industrial preparation of soap.
|Production||Small scale||Large scale|
|Raw materials||Generally cheap and limited to Coconut oil, NaOH, water, food coloring and NaCl||Not limited, good quality and generally include blended fats and oils (tallow, coconut oil, palm kernel oil and palm oil), colorant, fragrances and various active ingredients|
|Equipment||Stirrer, hot plate||Distiller, heater, mixer, molder|
|Temperature and Pressure||– Standard atmospheric pressure
– Temperature is about 50-80oC using bunsen burner.
|– High pressure (about 4.5-5 MPa)
– High temperature (240-270OC )
|Reaction Time||– about 1 hour
– Overnight solidification of soap.
|– Washing and setting of soap takes several days.|
|Safety||– Follows standard laboratory measures (wear of goggles, gloves, lab gown, etc)||– Follows standard laboratory operational rules (wear protective clothing, gloves, goggles, etc)|
|Waste Disposal||– Liquid layer (mainly glycerol, water and excess NaOH) above soap is decanted and transferred to designated waste container||– By-product such as glycerol is purified and sold to the cosmetics industry for cream-related uses|