Explore and distinguish the different types of structural isomers, including saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

Chain Isomers

  • Rearrangement in the backbone carbon molecules in hydrocarbons and the resultant products being compounds having same molecular formula and but different structural formula.
  • For example, 3 different isomers can be made from pentane which are n-pentane (generally termed as pentane), isopentane (2-methylbutane) and neopentane (dimethylpropane).

Reference image for structures

Position Isomers

  • Reordering and changes in position of functional groups in molecules.
  • For example, pentanol can have 3 position isomers, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol and 3-pentanol respectively.

Reference image for structures

Functional Group Isomers

  • Compounds having same molecular formula but different functional groups in their structure are known as functional isomers.
  • Difference in functional groups refers to the fact that functional isomers belong to different homologous series.

Reference image for structures