Investigate the structural formulae, properties and functional group

Compounds Structural Formula Functional Group
Primary Alcohol R-OH -OH
Secondary Alcohol CHROH -OH
Tertiary Alcohol -CR2OH -OH
Aldehydes R-CHO -CHO
Ketones RCO -CO
Amines RNH2 -NH2
Amides RCONH2/RCONR -CONH2 / -CONR

Properties of alcohol

  • Generally, have higher boiling points as compared to other hydrocarbons.
  • Hydrogen bond formation between alcohols and water make them capable of being dissolved in water.
  • Alcohols are acidic in nature and can react with metals to form metal alkoxides.
  • Alcohols undergo oxidation reactions and can produce aldehydes and ketones based on the number of alkyl groups present. Generally, primary alcohols when oxidized produce aldehydes whereas, secondary alcohols produce ketones and tertiary alcohols do not undergo oxidation. Upon further oxidation of alcohols, carboxylic acids are found.

Properties of aldehyde

  • Smaller aldehydes are more soluble in water.
  • The volatile aldehydes have pungent odors.
  • Aldehydes degrade in air via the process of autoxidation.
  • The two aldehydes of greatest importance in industry, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, have complicated behavior because of their tendency to oligomerize or polymerize.

Properties of ketone

  • Ketones are polar compounds thus soluble in water.
  • Due to resonance stabilization, alpha hydrogen of ketones is far more acidic as compared to alkanes.
  • Boiling point of ketones is higher than other non – polar hydrocarbons.

Properties of amine

  • The lower aliphatic amines are gaseous in nature with a fishy smell and can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules and thus are soluble in water.
  • Amines with three or four carbon atoms are liquids at room temperature and those having more carbon atoms hiare solids.
  • Higher the carbon number in amines, lower the capability of being soluble in water.
  • Organic solvents like alcohol, benzene, and ether readily dissolve amines.
  • Primary and secondary amines are often engaged in the intermolecular association as a result of hydrogen bonding between nitrogen of one and hydrogen of the other molecule. The order of intermolecular association is Primary > Secondary > Tertiary.

Properties of amides

  • Generally, have high melting and boiling points.
  • Have polarity as a result of which they are soluble in water.
  • Compared to amines, amides are pretty weak as bases.