- Chemical reactions are reversible in closed systems.
- Equilibrium: The state reached when the rate of forward and reverse reactions in a closed system become equal.
- Equilibrium systems are represented as the simultaneous forward and reverse reactions using the symbol:
- Equilibrium systems can be affected by changes made to the system.
- Le Chatelier’s principle can be used to predict changes in equilibrium systems.
- Le Chatelier’s principle can be stated as follows:
“When a change is made to an equilibrium system, the system moves to counteract the imposed change and restore the system to equilibrium.”
Henry Louis Le Chatelier