What Are Ligands Composed Of?

The Chemistry of Art > 5. Complexes > What Are Ligands Composed Of? >

Explain that ligands have at least one atom with a lone pair of electrons

  • Co-ordinate covalent bonds form between the ligands and the transition metal ion
    • Uses the lone pair electrons of the ligand

Lewis acids and bases:

  • Lewis acids – Acceptor electron pair
  • Lewis Bases – Donator electron pair
  • Therefore, in complex ions
    • Ligands are Lewis bases and metals ions are Lewis Acids
    • The co-ordinate covalent bond formed is a Lewis acid- Lewis base interaction
  • g Cu2+ reacting with ammonia

– Each NH3 donates a pair of electrons to form [Cu(NH3)4]2+

  • Because all ligands are Lewis bases, they must have at least one pair of unshared electrons